Stars are originals. So are plants, leaves, flowers and the petals of the flowers. But what about animals? Are animals, like dogs for example, duplicates or originals?
Dogs are born in litters. Are the puppies in the litter duplicates of each other or are they originals? If they are duplicates, then there would be no such thing as the pick of the litter for the best one or the runt of the litter for the smallest one. And there would be no such thing as breeding to develop big dogs or little dogs or dogs with useful traits. Breeding has been going on for thousands of years because each puppy is an original and can be chosen, or not chosen, to develop a particular kind of dog. If originality is true, then anyone should be able to observe many different kinds of dogs. So what do we observe? Are there many different kinds of dogs? Yes, there are and the book shows 220 originals to begin listing them, then 24 breeds, and 3,416 originals in those breeds. That is a lot of dogs, yet it does not pretend to be a complete survey.
All of those dogs were originals. There were no duplicates. The diminished variability of breeds was a beginning attempt to cause duplications to appear by causing the individuals to become more and more like each other, but it failed. They became more like each other, but each one was still an original. Was there another way? Maybe a small animal would have less room to vary and maybe that would be a way to get some duplicates. There is a microscopic animal called, a paramecium, and 116 were studied to try and find at least one duplicate. But that also failed because all of them were originals. The paramecium splits in half, called fission, to reproduce. With the same parent paramecium, maybe the fission daughters would be the same. Twenty-nine paramecia in fission were studied and all of the parents as well as all of the daughters were originals. There was one more possibility, metaboly. Would an organism expressing metaboly, a change in the morphology of the entire organism, run out of changes and thereby provide a duplicate? That was tried and also failed to produce a duplicate. During an hour a Euglena gracilis changed morphology about 70 times with no sign of running out of new shapes. In conclusion, as hard as one may try, it does not seem feasible to obtain duplicate animals. Yet that is not what is taught in the schools and the media.
The evolutionist’s tree of life seems a grandiose myth. Organisms are not the same with just one advantage to drive evolution. By actual observation, every organism is an original that must have been created, and no duplicates have been found to make the crowd from which evolution could distinguish itself. Without duplicates and with only originality, only creation can occur. Evolution cannot occur. Yet only the evolution superstition is allowed in the public school curricula and in the media. Is it any wonder that American science education ranks so low compared to other countries? Is it any wonder that American science students drop 50% in science achievement during the years that evolution is taught? For the evidence, see the latest book.