Are microscopic animals originals?


Microscopic plants are originals. Are microscopic animals originals? A haphazard sample of 116 microscopic animals, Paramecium aurelia, were taken into a study as they were found on microscope slides. No paramecia were eliminated or added to the sample. Upon inspection, they were found to be unanimously originals. There were no duplicates. See the figure above. That suggested that all paramecia are originals. The probability of that being wrong was calculated as 1/2^116, 1 in a decillion chances. That seemed ample reason to believe that the morphology of Paramecium aurelia is original.

Paramecia can reproduce by binary fission. The parent paramecium splits in half to form two daughter paramecia. There seemed a greater chance of finding duplicates amongst the  daughter paramecia given that each pair came from the same parent. A sample of 29 paramecia in fission were studied and all of the daughters as well as the parents were originals. See the figure below.


There seemed one more possibility to find duplicate animals. The microscopic animal-plant Euglena gracilis, which has a flagellum permitting it to live like an animal and a chloroplast permitting it to live like a plant, demonstrates metaboly, continual changes in morphology. In an hour, one specimen changed its morphology 70 times with no signs that it had exhausted its metaboly ability. Even metaboly in the same organism did not permit finding any duplicates. See the figure below.


That seemed ample evidence to conclude that microscopic animals are unanimously original. See the latest book.