Are stars originals?

H-R

Are all stars the same? Some seem brighter than others, but does that mean that there may be many duplicates amongst the others that seem mostly the same with the unaided eye? On a clear dark night, they seem like a profusion of lights. Are they like similar lights? Are they pretty much the same except for a bright one here and there?

Astronomers searched for another star like our sun. They seemed disinterested in the question of originality. They were interested in finding a clone in the expectation of subsequently finding a planet like our Earth and life as we know it. Had they succeeded in discovering another planet with life on it, that likely would have been considered one of the greatest discoveries of all time.

To systematize the search, plots like the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram were made. For about 23,000 stars, their luminosity, absolute magnitude, spectral class, temperature and color were plotted. Then it became clear that there was not a big aggregation in the center as might have been expected if all stars were the same. Rather there are seven distributions with our sun about two-thirds of the way down the Main Sequence. Further, there was no star close to the characteristics of our sun. The star called, 18 Scorpii, was the closest to our sun yet a far cry from being a clone. The astronomers tried, failed to find a clone, but their research did show that stars are not the same, and may be described by the seven distributions. For stars, evidently there are no duplicates and that indicates that each star is an original. And if the stars are unanimously originals, then so must their groups, their galaxies, be unanimously originals.

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram above (from Richard Powell, without endorsement, but with permission) illustrates their research well. It answers the question about the galaxies and their stars and whether they are originals or duplicates or some of each? Evidently, the stars and their galaxies are originals. See also the Latest Book.