Preface to Originality.

Sn on U

A reference on the cover of the book is “Inference to Everything.” Mankind has been occupied with a theory of everything, a theory that must give a fundamental as well as an advanced understanding of the universe. This treatise does that, but not merely with subjective arguments. Rather the evidence here is from verifiable objective evidence and the statistical inferences from that evidence as required by classical science.

The scientific method has used statistical inference by studying randomly selected subjects in a small sample from a population. The stringent methods required by the experimental method thereby provide the means to discover information about populations too large to be studied so minutely in their entirety. The inference from the small sample to its population is well established in the science literature of the past century and is called here the first tier of statistical inference. The second tier of statistical inference is new. That second tier is analyzing a sample of populations and inferring the results to all of the populations of the entire universe. It is similar to the analysis for a small sample, but on the grandest scale. The advantage is the direct lineage from the objective evidence to the ultimate treatise, which rival theories may not provide. From the beginning understanding to the final understanding, the scientist here may confirm the evidence. Belief may be based on verifiable objective evidence, not merely subjective arguments or speculative models, imaginary or mathematical or otherwise. From beginning to end, classical science guides and serves.

Scientists will believe the experimental results from a small sample if the probability of being wrong is rare. The standard very often found in the literature is P < 0.05. The scientist will believe the results if the probability of being wrong is less than 5 chances in 100 such experiments. If the penalty for being wrong is extraordinary, then P < 0.01, less than 1 chance in 100, or P < 0.001, less than 1 chance in 1,000 may be the standard. For the evidence in this book, the standard was set at P < 0.0001, less than 1 chance of being wrong in 10,000 such experiments. The standard was set so stringently because some readers may change their philosophy of life based on what they read here. Given such an extraordinary penalty for being wrong, an unusually stringent standard seemed appropriate.

This treatise is organized to give the reader the evidence together with the probability of being wrong should the evidence be believed. The order is to examine the objects in the vast nonviable portion of the universe, then the objects in the viable portion of the universe. The second tier of statistical inference to the entire universe is given at the end. See the figure above and the latest book.